What Is Shunt In Physics?

Are you curious to know what is shunt in physics? You have come to the right place as I am going to tell you everything about shunt in physics in a very simple explanation. Without further discussion let’s begin to know what is shunt in physics?

In the field of physics and electrical engineering, various components and devices are used to control the flow of electric current. One such component is the “shunt.” If you’re curious about what a shunt is and how it functions in the realm of physics, you’ve come to the right place. In this blog post, we will explore the concept of a shunt, its purpose, and its applications in electrical circuits and measurements.

What Is Shunt In Physics?

In physics, a shunt refers to a low-resistance pathway connected in parallel to a device or component in an electrical circuit. The primary purpose of a shunt is to divert or bypass a portion of the current, allowing for accurate measurements, control, or protection of the main circuit element.

Function And Applications Of Shunt:

  1. Current Measurement: Shunts are commonly used in electrical circuits to measure current accurately. By connecting a shunt in parallel to a measuring instrument (such as an ammeter), the shunt diverts a known portion of the current, enabling the measurement of the remaining current flowing through the main circuit. The shunt’s low resistance ensures that the voltage drop across it remains negligible, minimizing any interference with the measurement.
  2. Current Control: Shunts can also be utilized for current control purposes. By adjusting the resistance value of the shunt, the amount of current diverted can be regulated. This enables the fine-tuning of current levels in a circuit, ensuring that devices or components operate within their specified current ranges.
  3. Overcurrent Protection: In electrical systems, shunts are employed as protective devices to safeguard against overcurrent conditions. By incorporating a shunt in parallel to a fuse or circuit breaker, excessive current is diverted away from sensitive components, preventing damage or malfunction. The shunt provides a low-resistance pathway for the excessive current, allowing the protective device to interrupt the circuit and mitigate potential hazards.
  4. Voltage Regulation: Shunts can also be utilized for voltage regulation purposes. By adjusting the resistance value of the shunt, the voltage drop across it can be controlled. This helps maintain a consistent voltage level across specific components or sections of a circuit, ensuring their proper functioning.

Types Of Shunts:

There are various types of shunts used in different applications, including:

  1. Precision Resistors: These shunts are manufactured with highly accurate resistance values, allowing for precise current measurements.
  2. Hall Effect Shunts: These shunts utilize the Hall effect to measure current, making them suitable for high-current applications.
  3. Wire-Wound Shunts: These shunts are constructed by winding resistance wire around an insulating core, offering high current-carrying capabilities.


Shunts play a significant role in physics and electrical engineering by providing low-resistance pathways that divert or bypass current in electrical circuits. They find applications in current measurement, control, overcurrent protection, and voltage regulation. By incorporating shunts into circuits, accurate measurements can be obtained, current levels can be controlled, and devices can be protected from excessive current. The versatile nature of shunts makes them essential components in various electrical systems, contributing to their efficient and safe operation.


What Is Shunt And Its Unit?

A shunt means a small resistance connected in parallel with any component of an electrical circuit. However, it commonly refers to a low resistance connected into a galvanometer. Its SI unit is the ohm.

What Is Shunt In Simple Words?

(shunt) In medicine, a passage is made to allow blood or other fluid to move from one part of the body to another.

What Are Shunt And Its Principle Class 12?

Definition: shunt is a device used to calibrate or extend the range of an ammeter. It is connected in parallel in a circuit. We know its main need is to measure current, hence it needs low resistance and to have low resistance it must be connected in parallel.

What Is Shunt Formula?

With the equivalent resistance RA of the ammeter consisting of the galvanometer and the shunt in parallel, we have 50 mV= IgRg = IshRsh = IRA. Hence Rsh = 50/98 = 0.5102 Ω and RA = 50/100 = 0.5 Ω. Example 7.18. Accuracy of an ammeter.


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